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Working Of a Pelton Turbine

Now it’s time for you guys to know all about Pelton Turbine. A Pelton Turbine is generally known as Pelton Wheel Turbine, which is generally a tangential Impulse Turbine. Older Turbines used water inefficiently. Pelton Wheel made it to extinction. In approximately 1800’s Pelton was granted patent rights because of its high efficiency. It is a rotor driven by impulse of a jet of water on to the curved buckets fixed exactly to its periphery. The buckets have a 2 curved section that completely reverses the direction of striking of water jet. The Original model of Pelton Wheel was invented in 1880.

Pelton Turbine

Normally a turbine is required to work under one set off running conditions with all the possible power, speed and head for which it is designed. But the turbines are also made to work under many different conditions depending on the climatic and environmental conditions. So prior knowledge of how turbines work in its supporting and non supporting environment is must for all. So accordingly the turbines are to be tested and observations are to be taken representing a family of curves known as Characteristics of Turbine.

N is the speed in revolutions per minute.

P is the Horse Power.

H is the Head in metres.

The Pelton Turbine consists of a casing with a very large circular window and is usually transparent. It is kept transparent for the visual inspection of impact of jet on buckets and is generally placed at the front. A rotor assembly of shaft runner and brake drum are mounted on a sturdy cast iron base plate. Belt over drum is provided to load the turbine and the input can be controlled by adjusting spare position by means of a hand wheel.

The Pelton Wheel Turbine consists of a Pelton Wheel to which brake drum is coupled. The best belt is taken and wound round the brake drum with its ends tightened by means of the screws. The spring is also present which is used for the balance of the turbine. A Tachometer can also be connected to measure the speed of the wheel. A centrifugal pump provides sufficient water to the turbine. The discharge from the turbine can be measured by means of a notch which gets fitted to the discharge channel by means of magnetic energy or by other means.

The working and procedure of this is very simple when compared to all of its types. First we need to note number of divisions indicated on spur wheel. We need to start the electric motor and open the gate. After opening the delivery valve, the turbine works. Simple. Isn’t it!?

There are some precautions regarding this turbine. We need to prime the centrifugal pump before starting the motor. See the gates open fully and those are not changed automatically without the command from us.

Advantages of Pelton Wheel Turbine-

  1. Very efficient when compared to other turbines.
  2. Assembly is very easy.
  3. It can be easily operated in silted water also.
  4. Very high overall efficiency.

Disadvantages of Pelton Wheel Turbine-

  1. Efficiency decreases with time.
  2. The components are of very large size.
  3. The installation costs are high.
  4. Maintenance costs are also very high.

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