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What Is Acid Rain? What Causes Acid Rain

What is rainfall? Rainfall is the precipitation of evaporated water which has been evaporated from oceans, rivers, and lakes. The water is also evaporated from plants and leaves and this process of evaporation is known as transpiration. So precipitation may be in many types namely hailstone,  droplets of water,  snow and much more.


Usually, the water that we get from the rain is very pure. But what is the reason behind we do not drink rain water but drink water only after purifying? The dust particles in the atmosphere accumulate with the droplets of the water and causes them harmful to drink as they have many impurities.


Instead of impurities, when the water gets mixed with sulfur or nitrogen acid rains are caused. This is due to the reaction of water and sulfur or water and nitrogen forms acid. There is a meter called pH Meter to measure the pH value of the water. When the pH value of the water is less than 7, it is an acidic solution. When the pH value of the water is more than 7, it is a basic or alkaline solution. When the pH value is exactly equal to 7, it is a neutral solution.


Acidic Solution causes the metals and other structures the following disadvantages-

  1. Corrosion
  2. Rusting
  3. Fading


Alkaline Solution causes the metals and other structures the following disadvantages-

  1. Scaling
  2. Eroding


Acid rain is typically defined as precipitation with a combination of acidic components, which in those consists of sulfur and nitrogen in major quantities. This is due to the emission of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide releasing from the industries and plants to the atmosphere. Burning fossil fuel is also the main factor for the cause of Acid Rain.

The minimum quantities of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide gets released from volcanoes.


Types of Depositions

  1. Wet Deposition

Wet Deposition can be normally observed in many areas where the sulfur dioxide gets directly converted to a large cloud. This causes normal acid rain and this can be in the form of rain drops, snow, hailstones or fog.


  1. Dry Deposition

When there is the absence of water, these gases namely sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide gets deposited on the layers of water, metals, and other buildings. So this is known as Dry Deposition. After this, there may be rainfall at some particular time. The time may be a day, a month or two. In the time of rainfall, the rain water gets onto the layer of poisonous gases and forms very poisonous water which on contact will have severe hazard effects.

In some cases, these gases when formed into a layer can be transformed into small clinkers or small balls which are visible to naked eye but there will be no difference between a normal sand ball and acid rain ball.


Effects of Acid Rain

  1. Surface water is becoming poisonous due to the mixing of poisonous gases or particles with the surface water.
  2. Aquatic animals face death because of its poisonous effect.
  3. Forests and all the vegetation near the acid rain are polluted and cannot be further consumable or used for anything.
  4. Even the part of the ocean gets acidified and causes death to many aquatic animals.
  5. Humans face many biohazard effects and that may even to death in some cases.

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