What is a Load?
A load is nothing but force in physical and engineering terms. There are different types of loads. To be simple, there are four types of loads. They are as follows –
Compression is a type of load which shows impact by reducing the size of the material. Compression works when any heavy load falls on a body that is not rigid and shrinks to a volume that is lower than in the beginning. Compression helps to reduce the volume and size of the material but helps to increase the density of the material.
Tension is also a type of load which shows its impact by elongating or increasing the size of the material. Tension shows its work when any heavy load hangs on a body that is not rigid and elongates to a volume and size that is larger than in the beginning. Tension can be stated simply as a rubber band that gets stretched on either sides.
Torsion is a type of load that shows impact on twisting. When a rod or wire is twisted about an axis, this causes torsion which in turn also gives supplementary to couple.
Bending is a type of load that changes the physical structure of a material from a straight figure to curved or angular form. The rod that is attached to a swing in the play ground is the best example of bending.
In general, loads are classified into two groups. They are Dead loads and Live loads. Dead loads are constant and Live loads are changing from time to time.
Dead Loads – Dead load is nothing but the own weight it carries regardless of its size, shape and finishes which includes permanent attachments. In other words, the non movable objects are known to be dead loads.
Live Load – Live load is nothing but all the moving objects like people in the building, desks, computers, laptops and more, The intensity of varies from one object to another object. When the room is empty, the live load is very low but when the room is full with people partying, the live load is high.
Wind Load – Wind is one of the major components of universe and is also a very important load to be considered to all the engineers. This is a must to consider when the materials we are dealing with are of very light weight. Even for civil engineers to construct large buildings, they consider wind loads. Wind load directly effects the strength, stability and serviceability.
Snow Load – When we get to higher magnitudes we can expect huge snow but in lower magnitudes, there is no expectancy for snow fall.
Earthquake Load – Earthquake loads affect complete areas and sometimes complete countries. These are a complete disastrous and the highest acting load.
Thermal loads, Dynamic loads and Settlement loads are other loads which come into play while considering engineering effects.
These are the different types of loads relating to all the aspects.