Parts of lathe machine :- Lathe was actually the first machine tool which came into being as a useful machine for metal cutting. Lathe can be defined as a machine tool which holds the work between two rigid and strong supports, called centers, or in a chuck or Face plate while the lathe revolves. The following are some of the important Parts of lathe machine
Parts of lathe machine
The bed of Lathe acts as the base on which the different fixed and operations parts of the Lathe are mounted. Lathe beds are usually made as single piece casting of semi-steel (i.e., toughened cast iron),
with the addition of small quantity of steel scrap to the cast iron during melting; the material ‘cast iron’ facilitating an easy sliding action. In case of extremely large machines, the bed may be in two or more pieces, bolted together to from the desired length. Lathe Bed are heavy rigid structure which is having high damping capacity for the vibrations generated by machines during machining. The rigid structure will helps to avoid deflections. The guides and ways which are present on the top of the bed will act as rails and supports other parts like tail stock. The bed will be designed in such a way that easily bolted to the floor of the machine shop.
The head stock is the part of the lathe which serves as a housing for the driving pulleys and back gears, provides bearing for the machine spindle and keeps the latter in alignment with the bed. It is a fixed part which will present on the left side of the lathe bed. Head stock will consists of a hollow spindle and drives unit like main spindle, feed reverse lever, live center cone pulley etc., The tapered bar with pointed or projected end is going to grip the work piece between two centers of lathe bed.
It is also sometimes called the LOOSE HEAD- STOCK or PUPPET HEAD. It is mounted on the bed of the lathe such that it is capable of sliding along the latter maintaining its alignment with the head stock. On common types of medium size or small size lathes it is moved along the bed by hand, whereas in heavier types of lathes it is moved by means of a hand wheel through a pinion which meshes with the rack provided on the front of the lathe bed. The main function of the Tail stock is to provide bearing and support to the job which is being worked between centers.To enable this, the tail stock is made to possess a number of parts which collectively help in its successful function.
The lathe carriage serves the purpose of supporting, guiding and feeding the tool against the job during the operation of the lathe. The carriage will present between head stock and tail stock which will slides on the bed ways of the lathe bed. The carriage will give feed to the tool and it holds the tool, for taper turning the feed is cross feed, for turning it is longitudinal feed. The carriage consists of the following parts.
- compound Rest
- Tool post
It is the part of the carriage which slides along the bed way and support the Cross-slide,compound rest and Tool post.
The cross-slide function is to provide cutting action to the tool and the action of cutting tool will be perpendicular to center line of lathe.It can either be operated by hand, by means of the cross-feed screw, or may be given power feed through the Apron Mechanism.
- Compound Rest
The compound Rest will be placed over the cross slide and it consists of a graduated circular base which is having swiveling nature.
- Tool post
It is the top most part of the carriage and is used for holding the tool or tool holder in position.
Aprone houses the feed mechanism, clutch mechanism split half nut, gears, leavers, The apron wheel can be rotated by hand for longitudinal motion of the carriage.
They are the supports which carry the entire load of the machine over them.The prevailing practice is to use cast legs. Both the legs are firmly secured to the floor by means of foundation blots in order to prevent vibrations in the machine. One of these legs, usually the one on the left hand side of the operator, serves as a housing for the electric motor and counter shaft etc., Both these legs should be of robust construction.