Mechanical Properties of Metals –
All the mechanical properties of the materials were discovered by conducting experiments on the metals. Each and every metal exhibits different mechanical properties and almost all the mechanical properties of the metals as listed and described below. These may be a function of time, temperature, pressure or any other unit.
1. Stress – The stress in actual terms is the ratio of force applied and the area where the force has been applied. The load is usually calculated per unit area and the force is relevant that it is perpendicular to the surface of the area.
2. Strain – The strain is defined as the ratio of change in dimension to original dimension. The change in direction may be increase in length or decrease in length.
3. Creep – The ability of the metal to change the shape when heated and be rigid when cooled is known as Creep.
4. Deformation – For most of the metals, there are two types of deformations. They are elastic deformation and Plastic deformation. Elastic deformation is the deformation which gets elongated or compressed but returns back to its original shape in certain amount of time. When the metal or material resists to come back to its original shape, the deformation is known as plastic deformation.
5. Anelasticity – When the deformation takes place and returns back to its original shape but takes longer time is known as Anelasticity. This is not usually exhibited by the metals but can be seen in the case of polymers.
6. Tensile Strength – When the length of the metal is increase by reducing the area, the metal is known as tensile. The tensile strength can be exerted only until the breaking point or the time where the elasticity stops responding.
7. Compressive strength – When the length of the metal is reduced by compressing, the force exerted or pressure withstand in the metal is known as Compressive Strength.
8. Ductility – Ductility is the mechanical property of a metal to deform into another shape without crossing the breaking point. When it once crosses the breaking point, the metal gets divided into two pieces.
9. Toughness – Toughness is the mechanical ability of the metal to absorb the energy until a fracture is observed. Toughness is the main factor in selecting materials for military purposes and many more.
10. Hardness – Hardness is the mechanical ability to be resistant even when the compressive force is applied to make a change in the shape of the metal. Hardness is normally characterized by strong intermolecular bonds which often gives strength to the material or metal.
11. Brittleness – Brittleness is the fracture ability to pass even when a small force is applied and usually can be shock, force or impact.
12. Resilence – Resilence is the capacity and ability of the material to absorb any energy imparted to it.
13. Malleability – Malleability is the mechanical ability of the metal to roll into thin sheets when made to roll. Gold, Silver, Aluminum, Copper, Tin and many others are malleable materials. The silverware we use in our dining areas are all the examples of malleable metals.
These are some of the mechanical properties of the metals.