Have you ever heard of locking the speed in vehicles? YES! The locking of speed in the vehicles can only be done with the help of a Governor.
What is a Governor ?
A Governor is a device that is used to determine the speed of the moving machine part and regulates the speed to the desired level. Even in cars and other automobiles, governors are being used. Governors are also known for speed limiters as they can regulate the speed of the automobile. In internal combustion engine vehicles, a governor is used to limit the rotational speed of the engine, so as to reduce the speed of the vehicle. Almost all the governors work under the principle of centrifugal force.
What is Centrifugal Force ?
Centrifugal Force is an inertial force that is directed away from its axis. When a rotating object is connected to a small weight object with the help of a string, the small object rotates circularly around the object as the planets around the sun, but not elliptical.
A Governor is a part that uses centrifugal force to limit the speed of the vehicle. A pair of flyweights is mounted on the drive shaft. This system of the governor is attached to the movement of internal combustion engine. When the vehicle speed is zero, the centrifugal force is zero as there will be no rotational movement. When the vehicle speed starts to increase, the centrifugal force acting on it also increases ( The governor starts to rotate with the attached movement of the engine ).
When the speed is to a certain amount, the flywheels tend to open up and produce the decelerating effect of the vehicle. The flywheels are connected to a spring-like part that is directly attached to the fuel pump of the engine. As the flywheels tend to move outwards, the spring tends to be pushed downwards and so the fuel flowing to the engine gets cut off by a small amount. A governor is also used to completely shut the power of an engine when the speed limit exceeds.
The Governor must be designed according to the speed limits required by the manufacturers. Not only the manufacturers but also the locally made governors are also available. The size of the governor is completely related the speed limit. The weight of the flywheels and the length to which they are attached to the governor plays a major role in regulating speed.
Let us take a plastic ball attached to a string and swirl it horizontally above your head. You can do this just by applying a small amount of force. But for the second time, de-attach the plastic ball and attach an iron ball. You must apply some force to make it swirl above your head. The same way, if the required speed is high and needs a speed limit, you need to attach some weighing flywheels with the desired length. If the required speed is low and needs a speed limit, you need to attach some light flywheels with the desired length.
There are many types of governors classified according to their control area. They are
- Pneumatic Governors
- Centrifugal Governors
- Electronic Governors
You can find governors in almost all the cars like BMW, Benz, Audi and much more. In some countries, governors are fixed earlier to the sale of the cars so as to establish the speed limit of the country. Even the Rolls-Royce cars are limited with a governor.